The stars are luminous elements which move above the surface of the Earth in a layer above the Sun, Moon and planets. The stars revolve above the Earth at the rate of the Sidereal Day, which is defined as the time between two consecutive transits of the First Point of Aries, which is about one rotation every 23.93 hours, or 4 minutes shorter than the Solar Day. The stars come in various colors— red, green, purple, blue, orange—as well as various types, such as variable stars which appear to rapidly pulsate. In heliocentrism the visible diameter of the stars are said to be illusions.
The study of the stars dates back thousands of years. Ancient astronomers were able to differentiate between stars and planets, as stars remain relatively fixed over the centuries while planets will move an appreciable amount during a comparatively short time. The ancients created the constellations and looked up to the stars as a calendar of the changing seasons, navigation, and sought to find associations with the position of the celestial bodies and events on Earth, in what is now known as Astrology.
- Airy's Failure - An experiment which suggests that the stars are in motion, rather than the Earth
- Doppler Shift - Redshift does not mean velocity
- Exoplanets - Discrepancies and assumptions in exoplanet analysis
- Problems of the Galaxies - The galaxies do not behave in accordance with physical laws
- Southern Celestial Rotation - The FE debate on the rotation of the stars in the South
- Star Size Illusion - The visible size of stars are deemed illusions by modern astronomy
- Stellar Parallax - Many stars shift annually in opposition to Copernicanism
- Cosmology Has Some Big Problems - Scientific American depicts Cosmology to be a problematic folk tale
- Cosmological Principle - Observations suggesting that we are at the center of the universe must be discarded and reinterpreted
- Multiverse - A theory of multiple universes arising from the special nature of our existence