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Celestial Sphere

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Borrowed from antiquity, a cornerstone to astronomy is the Celestial Sphere, which describes that the celestial bodies are projected to a sphere or dome around the observer. Astronomers use a spherical coordinate system to describe the sky. A spherical celestial sky is often put forward as evidence for a spherical world.

Reading closer, the celestial sphere goes much further than it being a mere representation of a universe spread out around us. While some astronomers treat the celestial sphere as ficticious, other astronomers explain that straight lines in space will appear to us as curves on the celestial sphere. The Moon Tilt Illusion, in which the illuminated portion of the Moon often and paradoxically points upwards and away from the Sun, is attributed as an effect caused by the Sun and Moon resting at different angles upon the celestial sphere. The Milky Way, usually thought of as a flat entity viewed from the side, appears as a bending arch in the sky on the celestial sphere[1]. The Sun's path bends and warps on the celestial sphere[2]. So too do comets[3], meteors[4], and the aurora[5] curve upon the celestial sphere above us. We are told, essentially, that we observe the heavens as if we were inside of a planetarium, where straight lines become curved on a spherical surface around us.

Why should it be that a straight line in space is warped and curved? If a straight line was receding in distance from our position, at which point would that straight line become curved? The celestial sphere is proposed by conventional astronomy without a mechanism, and with only vague statements that it is natural to observe nature in this way. Actively ignored as a topic of discussion, neglected in astronomy texts, and mainly trotted out when forced to explain phenomena, the warping of lines upon the celestial sphere showcases the weakness and untenability of conventional astronomy.

In contrast to this, the Flat Earth Theory's celestial model directly provides a mechanism for why lines, containing points at different distances from the observer, appear curved in the sky and for our domed observations.

EA Interpretation

As shown on the Electromagnetic Acceleration main page, a straight line in front and overhead of an observer will become curved. EA will cause straight lines appear to become curved on the interior of a dome.

  “ As points in space recede from the observer they will lower in altitude due to the effect of Electromagnetic Acceleration, like how the Sun lowers as it recedes from the observer, causing celestial lines in space to generally appear as if they are being projected onto a curved surface. As an example, consider a straight line suspended high over and in front of an observer. From the observer's vantage point the points receding from the center of the line will appear to dip towards the ground due to EA, since those points are becoming more distant in relation to the observer. The straight line will appear curved on a 'celestial dome'. ”

EA Drop1.png

EA-Curved.png

Conventional Description

The following are conventional descriptions of the Celestial Sphere.

General Astronomy

The book General Astronomy (Archive) says:

  “ The stars appear to move together across the sky during the night, rising in the east and setting in the west, as if they are affixed to the inside of a dome. Because of this, many ancient civilizations believed that a dome really did enclose the Earth. Only a few centuries ago astronomers came to realize that the stars are actually very far away, scattered throughout the Milky Way Galaxy, rather than attached to the inside of a vast sphere.

The old idea remains useful, however. The concept of the celestial sphere provides a simple way of thinking about the appearance of the stars from Earth without the complication of a more realistic model of the universe. Working with the celestial sphere offers a convenient way of describing what we see from Earth. When we refer to the celestial sphere, we are imagining that everything we see on the sky is set on the inside of a huge spherical shell that surrounds the Earth. We will use the reference points of the celestial sphere as the basis for several coordinate systems used to place celestial locations with respect to one another and to us. ”

University of Virginia

An astronomy course at the University of Virginia describes (Archive):

  “ Everything appears to move around us as though we were at the center of the Universe. The Celestial Sphere is an imaginary concept that is a useful tool for understanding some workings of the sky....Even though we now know that this ancient model of a stationary Earth surrounded by a rotating sphere of stars is incorrect, we still use this model because it is a convenient way to predict the motions of the stars and planets relative to a location on the Earth. ”

New Jersey Institute of Technology

The New Jersey Institute of Technology states (Archive):

  “ Think of the sky as painted, or projected, onto the inside of a dome--like a planetarium dome. ”

Princeton University

Professor of Astronomy Charles A.Young, Ph.D, defines spherical astronomy as (Archive):

  “ Spherical Astronomy — This, discarding all consideration of absolute dimensions and distances, treats the heavenly bodies simply as objects moving on the “surface of the celestial sphere”: it has to do only with angles and directions, and, strictly regarded, is in fact merely Spherical Trigonometry applied to Astronomy. ”

On the Evolution of the Heavenly Spheres

A doctoral thesis explains that the the transformation of straight lines into curves on the celestial sphere has been known since antiquity.

On the Evolution of the Heavenly Spheres
An Enactive Approach to Cosmography
by David McConville

Full Text Link (Archive)

p.40

Spherical Field of Vision.png

  “ Though analysis of ‘one-point’ linear perspective has dominated the study of the morphology of sight since the Renaissance, numerous references to the ‘sphere’ of vision can be found dating back to antiquity. First suggested in Euclid’s Optics15, references to the curvature of the visual field has fascinated artists and astronomers alike, appearing in the writings of Johannes Kepler16, Leonardo da Vinci17, William Hershel18, Erwin Panofsky (1924), Ernst Gombrich (1972), and others (Tyler, 2009; Veltman, 1994). Though these observations have been overshadowed by analysis of single-point ‘linear’ perspective, these curvilinear speculations form a tradition that, according to Panofsky (1960), “considered our sphere of vision quite literally as a ‘sphere’” (Figure 12). This assumption, he insists, “more nearly agrees with physiological and psychological reality than that which underlies Brunelleschi's rectilinear construction” (p. 128). ”

Footnotes:

15 Kim Veltman (2004, p. 15) reviews the debate concerning the degree to which Euclid’s Optics was a precursor to either linear or spherical perspective in Literature on Perspective: Sources and Literature of Perspective.
16 Kepler writes, "But our vision has no surface like that of a painting on which it may look at the picture of the hemisphere but only that surface of the sky above in which it sees comets, and it imagines a sphere by the natural instinct of vision. But if a picture of things is extended in straight lines into a concave sphere, and if our vision is in the center of this, the traces of those things will not be straight lines, but, by Hercules, curved ones" (Galilei, Drake, & O’Malley, 1960, pp. 354–355)
17 James Elkins (1988, 1994) summarizes the dispute surrounding da Vinci’s position on the curvature of vision in “Did Leonardo develop a theory of curvilinear perspective?” and The Poetics of Perspective.
18 Hershel (1869) writes, "In celestial perspective, every point to which the view is for the moment directed, is equally entitled to be considered as the "centre of the picture," every portion of the surface of the sphere being similarly related to the eye. Moreover, every straight line (supposed to be indefinitely prolonged) is projected into a semicircle of the sphere, that, namely, in which a plane passing through the line and the eye cuts its surface. And every system of parallel straight lines, in whatever direction, is projected into a system of semicircles of the sphere, meeting in two common apexes, or vanishing points, diametrically opposite to each other, one of which corresponds to the vanishing point of parallels in ordinary perspective; the other, in such perspective has no existence” (p.70)

Sun Path Warped

According to the conventional model the sun's path is a plane which intersects the observer's sky.

A Weber State University astronomy course by Dr. Daniel V. Schroeder (bio) shows the Sun's path is warped upon the celestial dome:

https://physics.weber.edu/schroeder/ua/sunandseasons.html (Archive)

SunrisePaths.png

Caption:   “ This simulated multiple-exposure image shows the path of the rising sun through the eastern sky on the morning of the 21st of each month, from December at the right through June at the left. The latitude was set to 41° north. (The spreading of the trails as they go upward is a distortion caused by stretching the domed sky onto a flat semicircle.) ”

The above website explains the distortion as caused by 'stretching the domed sky onto a flat semicircle' -- as if there is a domed sky around us which modifies the position of the Sun. The diagram comes from the linked Sky Motion Applet.

Dr. Schroeder also provides the following multiple-exposure photo:

JuneSolsticeSunset.jpg

  “ Multiple-exposure photo of the setting sun, showing that it follows the same diagonal path that a star would, as seen from a mid-northern latitude. This photo was made on June 21, when the sun set considerably north of due west. ”

Moon and Venus Star Trails

Like the Sun, both Venus and the Moon are seen to follow the curved path of the stars.

Crescent Moon Venus and Star Trails.jpg

"Crescent Moon Venus and star trails at Nagano, Norikura mountain" (Source)

See Also

Milky Way Arch

Like the path of the Sun in the sky (the ecliptic), the Milky Way is thought to be a straight line entity which we are viewing from the side. Yet it has been asserted that the Milky Way is sometimes seen to be creating an arch in the sky.

Milky-Way-Arch-Matt-Rohlader.jpg
Source: Matt Rohlader Photography | Caption: "The arch of the Milky Way as seen from Split Rock Lighthouse State Park near Two Harbors, MN."

A Google Image Search for 'Milky Way Arch' will provide many images of the Milky Way arching in the sky.

Photographs of the Milky Way Arch from Google Image Search have been described as being affected by wide-angle, fish-eye, composite, or other effects. While true that many images of the Milky Way Arch are affected by such distortion, sources tell us that the arch can be seen with the naked eye as well. Astronomer and Associate Editor Alison Klesman, Ph.D. (bio), at Astronomy Magazine informs us that sometimes cameras can produce distortion, and ends with the statement that the arc can also be seen with the naked eye. It is said that both the Milky Way and the ecliptic (the planar path of the Sun) project as a great circle onto the celestial sphere, which create straight lines overhead, and at lower altitudes create arcs in the sky:

http://www.astronomy.com/magazine/ask-astro/2018/09/seeing-a-curved-milky-way (Archive)

  “ [Discussing photo distortion]...Each individual image captures only a portion of the sky (and landscape), and in each single shot, the Milky Way does appear straight. But when these images are stitched together, the photographer must introduce distortion to turn them into a single square or rectangular photo. This is because the final photo is a flat projection of a curved sphere, which introduces distortion that ultimately makes the Milky Way appear curved in order to make the horizon appear flat. Alternatively, some images are taken with a fisheye lens, which itself produces distortion in order to image an extremely wide field in one shot.

There is one caveat: The Milky Way appears straightest when it is most directly overhead. Astronomy senior editor Rich Talcott points out, “The plane of the Milky Way projects as a great circle onto the celestial sphere (as does the ecliptic, which we are also in). So both the Milky Way and the ecliptic appear as large circles in the sky (which, if they happen to pass overhead, will appear as straight lines). But if the circles reach a peak altitude of only, say, 30°, they’re going to look like arcs to the naked eye." ”

We are told that the ecliptic and Milky Way projects upon the celestial sphere and appears straight overhead and curved at lower altitudes.

If the Milky Way is a straight line entity which we are viewing from the side, the plane of the Milky Way around us should always be a straight entity when we look at it. A straight line in the distance should be straight, regardless of how we look at it. It should not appear straight overhead and curved at lower altitudes, as the astronomers at Astronomy Magazine state.

Stack Exchange

Comments from amateur astronomers also appear to corroborate these statements. From a stack exchange post:

  “ If you are ever in a dark-enough place to actually see the MW with your own eyes, it looks like an arc any time the band is lower than 45 degrees or so above the horizon. If you take an image of the MW at that point with a strictly rectilinear lens, mounted with nodal slide to control for parallax, and then stitch it together it will still look like an arc. Yes, the arc can be exaggerated by lens distortion, but that is not the primary reason the MW looks like an arc.

A number of apps that predict the position of the MW exist today, and they clearly show the COMPUTED position of the MW in the sky as an arch (see for example PhotoPills or Stellarium). The appearance of an arch is due to the projection of the MW on the curved sky, not on "your flat screen".  ”

Comets

On p.359 of Elementary astronomy; a beginner's text-book (Archive) by astronomer Edward S. Holden, former director of Lick Observatory, it says:

  “ The mass of comets is extremely small, so small that no comet has yet been observed to produce perturbations in the motion of any planet. It is to be remembered that we do not see the tail of a comet in its true shape, but only its projection on the celestial sphere, and it is further more to be noted that the tail is not the debris of the comet left behind the comet in its motion. ”

Meteors

The International Meteor Organization (Archive) says:

  “ As we mentioned earlier, meteors describe arcs on the celestial sphere that are parts of great circles. Such a circle determines a plane. Plotting a meteor then comes down to determining the intersection between this plane and the plane on which the stars were projected. Figure 1 shows two meteors and their great circles on the celestial sphere. ”

Aurora

Astronomer and mathematician Simon Newcomb (bio) tells us in his book Popular Astronomy that the aurora, too, projects upon the celestial sphere (Archive):

p.309

  “ A close study of the aurora indicates that its connection is not with the geographical, but with the magnetic pole. Two distinct kinds of light are seen in the aurora; or we might say that the light assumes two distinct forms, of which’ sometimes the one and sometimes the other preponderates. They are as follows:

~

2. The streamer or pillar form. This form consists of long streamers or pillars, which extend in the direction of the dipping magnetic needle. They look curved or arched, like the celestial sphere on which they are projected, but they are really straight. They are in a state of constant motion. Sometimes they are spread out in the form of an immense flag with numerous folds, dancing, quivering, and undulating, as if moved by the wind. ”

The Chautauquan

Another reference from The Chautauquan (Archive):

  “ That most interesting atmospheric phenomena, the Aurora Borialis, though so familiar, has never been fully explained. It is rarely seen in equatorial latitudes, but increases in frequency and brightness as we go north, even to the arctic circle. In this latitude all observers may at times notice two distinct forms of the aurora.

... The other takes the form of streamers, reaching for up toward the zenith. Gently curved, like the celestial sphere on which they are projected, they are not stationary, but almost constantly in motion, but soon resuming their former position, spreading themselves out like immense flags, with their numerous silken folds, ever dancing, quivering, undulating, as if stirred by some gentle breeze, though all else seems in calm repose. ”

Moon Tilt Illusion

If the Moon is illuminated by the Sun then it is expected that the illuminated portion of the Moon will point at it. The Moon Tilt Illusion is a geometric anomaly in which the Moon is often seen to point upwards and away from the Sun. Astronomers attribute this to the Sun and Moon resting at different angles on the 'celestial sphere'.

Professor Alan Myers at the University of Pennsylvania says the following (Archive):

  “ Astronomers rely upon the celestial sphere model for maps of the sky because locations of stars and constellations depend only on their right ascension and declination. For the topocentric model used for the sun and the moon, location is specified by azimuth and altitude. All objects in the sky are assumed to be located at the same distance from the observer, as if pasted upon the surface of an imaginery sphere surrounding the observer. Astronomers, for whom the celestial sphere model is a basic tool for mapping the stars, are not surprised by the apparently curved path of light from the sun to the moon because they know that straight lines in 3-D object space are transformed to great-circle arcs on the imaginary celestial sphere. ”

A diagram is provided:

Moon Tilt Northern Waxing.png

Professor Myers informs us on the interest of astronomers in discussing this topic:

  “ The moon tilt illusion is not described in astronomy textbooks because astronomers know that straight lines in object space become great circles on the celestial sphere. ”

On another page, in regards to the Moon Tilt Illusion, Professor Myers says:

  “ The scientific explanation is based on the projection of a straight line onto the surface of a sphere. ”

MetaBunk

A physics educator under the alias Henk001 was kind enough to take the time to provide us with a free science lecture on the workings of astronomy, instructing us with the following(Archive):

  “ I had a night to sleep on it and I came up with this short lecture (I am a physics teacher so you will excuse me for being a bit excessive). First, to put things in perpective, a scale drawing of the earth, moon and the moon's orbit....

~

We now are trying to see the moon's orbit in perspective, putting it in a plane and let the sunlight come from the right. Also we blow up the size of the earth and the moon:

Earth-Moon-Sun-Henk.png

Now look at the two blue arrows, representing the viewing directions towards the moon and towards the sun, they make an angle of 90°. The dashed circle is an arbitrary circle on which we see both the moon and the sun. Now what does this circle look like when projected on the celestial sphere -- which is, for clarity, an imaginary "sphere of directions"? First lets look at it from the standpoint of an observer close to the north pole

Celestial Sphere North.png

The sunlit half of the moon almost faces the sun

Next from the standpoint of an observer living in the mid latitudes:

Celestial-Sphere-Moon-Tilt.png

remember that these 2-dimensional pictures are projections of a 3-dimensional viewing sphere. At the equator the moon will even look like this:

Moon-Upwards-Celestial-Sphere.png

So, on the celestial "sphere" you have to imagine a great circle, being the section of the earth-moon-sun-plane with that sphere. The circle is tilted more or less depending on your latitude (for the sake of simplicity again I also ignore the tilt of the earth's axis and the inclination of the moon's orbit), causing this illusion. ”

The educator explains that a 'celestial sphere' modifies the orientations of the sun and moon, causing the illuminated portion of to Moon to point in a different direction. Following this enlightenment, our expert continues:

  “ And that is essentially where flat earthers go wrong. Their INTERPRETATION of what they observe doesn't match the generally accepted model, "so the model must be wrong" -- instead of "so what am I overlooking?" (and ask an expert (site) to explain). ”

We are told by a molder of young minds that when something does not make sense about the world our intuition and correct course of action should be to surrender curiosity, criticism, and all sense of geometry. Instead, we must seek to "ask an expert"—stoic educators and pillars of the community who will proceed to correct our misunderstanding of nature with impeachable facts from science scholarship, such as with teachings of the celestial sphere which the celestial bodies project upon at different angles and where straight lines become curved.

See the Moon Tilt Illusion

Addendum

The effect of the 'Celestial Sphere' is seen to be quite literal. Kepler remarks "if a picture of things is extended in straight lines into a concave sphere, and if our vision is in the center of this, the traces of those things will not be straight lines, but, by Hercules, curved ones."[1] Astronomers at Astronomy Magazine tell that the straight entities of the ecliptic and Milky Way project onto the celestial sphere as straight when overhead and at low enough altitudes "look like arcs to the naked eye."[2] On comets Holden tells us that "we do not see the tail of a comet in its true shape, but only its projection on the celestial sphere"[3]. Meteors "describe arcs on the celestial sphere"[4]. The aurora streamers "look curved or arched, like the celestial sphere on which they are projected, but they are really straight"[5] and are "gently curved, like the celestial sphere on which they are projected."[6] And, on the odd nature of the Moon Tilt Illusion where the illuminated portion points away from the Sun: "The scientific explanation is based on the projection of a straight line onto the surface of a sphere"[7], as well as the revealing statement of "The moon tilt illusion is not described in astronomy textbooks because astronomers know that straight lines in object space become great circles on the celestial sphere."[8] We can only interpret all of these statements as a belief that lines turn into curves on the Celestial Sphere.

In sum, distant observations paradoxically appear to project upon a sphere or dome around the observer. Usually discussed briefly and given as an explanation by astronomers without any apparent mechanism, the phenomena of lines projecting as curves on a celestial sphere is quite suggestive and of great interest to the Flat Earth investigation. In order for different observers to have his or her own personal dome where celestial lines appear curved, the mechanism cannot be anything other than the curvature of light rays which create the appearance of our domed surroundings, and hence a piece of evidence for the Flat Earth's celestial model of Electromagnetic Acceleration.

Astronomical Refraction

In regards to refraction as a possible mechanism for lines in the sky to be bent downwards, according to astronomical refraction the phenomenon would cause bodies to be lifted upwards by a small amount, not pulled downwards. In RE it is said that during sunset when the edge of the visible disk of the apparent Sun is touching the horizon, that the geometrical Sun is already below it. The apparent Sun is lifted upwards, which is the opposite direction to the effect needed.

From Georgia State University we read:

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/atmos/mirage.html (Archive)

  “ For light coming from outside the Earth's atmosphere, the biggest influence on the light speed is the atmospheric pressure. Incoming light rays from the Sun or stars will be bent downward by refraction toward the Earth. The bending is significant mainly when the light is coming from near the horizon when the light will travel through a long pathway of air. For the Sun near sunset, the refraction will cause the Sun to appear higher in the sky than it is....Stars near the horizon will likewise appear higher in the sky than they are because of this refraction. ”

The University of Arizona relays the same:

http://ircamera.as.arizona.edu/Astr_518/ametry.pdf (Archive)

  “ Atmospheric refraction causes astronomical objects to appear higher in the sky than they are in reality. This effect even lifts objects from up to 35 arc minutes [ed: 0.58 degrees] below horizon to above the apparent horizon. ”

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