Unorganized Notes Page
This section contains unorganized notes, links for further reference, and works in progress.
- 1 Works in Progress
- 2 Notes
- 3 Navigation
- 3.1 Sleddog Speeds
- 3.2 Latitude Origin
- 3.3 Nullschool Map
- 3.4 Jet Streams
- 3.5 WGS 1984
- 4 Relativity
- 5 Moon
- 6 EAT
- 6.1 Moon Tilt
- 6.2 Conspiracy
- 6.3 Clouds Lit from Below
- 6.4 Quotes
- 6.5 Newton Divine
- 6.6 Southern Hemisphere
- 6.7 Electromagnetic Accelerator
- 6.8 Flattened at the Poles
- 6.9 Mountain-Gravity
- 6.10 Mine-Gravity
- 6.11 Time Dilation by Latitude
- 6.12 Moonbounce
- 6.13 Water Convexity
- 6.14 Gravity by Altitude
- 7 Lunar Laser Ranging
Works in Progress
Below are works in progress, and an area for miscellaneous notes. The content may change significantly or be rearranged.
Lighthouses of the World
Water Level Devices
Curvature Compression Test
Evidence for Electromagnetic Acceleration
Phases of the Moon
Sinking Ship Effect Caused by Refraction
Sinking Ship Effect Caused by Limits to Optical Resolution
Lunar Eclipse Criticisms
Sunrise and Sunset
Cosmology Has Some Big Problems
Distances in the South
Opinions of the Press
Red Shift of Galaxies
Sorry, Wrong Answer: Trivia Questions That Even Know-It-Alls Get Wrong
By Rod L. Evans Ph.D.
“ Some misconceptions are so common that they are embraced by even cartoon characters. For example, in a particularly popular episode of The Simpsons, "Bart. vs Australia," Lisa tells Bart that toilets in the Northern Hemisphere (including America) drain counterclockwise, whereas those in the Southern Hemisphere drain clockwise. Lisa's confusion stems from misunderstanding the Coriolis Effect, the inertial force that deflects objects moving above the Earth--rightward in the Northern Hemisphere and leftward in the Southern Hemisphere (including Australia). Bart Simpson doesn't accept Lisa's conclusions, calls up Australians to find the truth about their toilers, and manages to create a diplomatic incident. Factually it was Lisa, however, who was mistaken. Australian toilets flush in the same direction as toilets in the Northern Hemisphere. Although the Coriolis Effect can and does influence large bodies of water and air masses in the atmosphere, its influence on the direction of tiny quantities of water in a sink or a toilet bowl is negligible compared to the effect of the shape of receptacles and the direction of flow from which they were filled. ”
“ water draining in sinks, tubs, or toilets DOES NOT rotate according to the Coriolis effect. The water drains based only on how the water is poured or the shape of the drain ”
“ the effect has nothing to do with water swirling in the drain, that is solely down to the shape of the drain. ”
“ Many people think the Coriolis effect makes water in baths and sinks drain in different ways - anti-clockwise in the Northern hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern hemisphere. However, baths and sinks are too small to be affected and the direction that the water drains is more likely to be caused by the shape of the sink or the bath, the slope of the floor and the shape of the drain. ”
“ The direction that water spins as it goes down the drain is due to the shape of the bathtub or sink--not to the Coriolis effect. ”
Smarter Every Day Coriolis Demo
The way in which pre-Hispanic people predicted the eclipses by carefully observing the Sun's and Moon's trajectories can be explained to students by telling them that since the paths of the sun and moon form a 5 degree angle, and their apparent motion is different, the moon moves slower, one can incer when the trajectories will cross.
The Elecromagnetic Accelerator predicts that the Lunar Eclipse will occur when the Full Moon occurs about 180 Latitude Degrees from the Sun's position. Presuming that the Sun and the Moon travel on essentially the same paths, albeit at different rates, and that the Full Moon represents the time when the Moon is furthest from the Sun. At this time a Lunar Eclipse will occur. It is shown graphically that 180 degrees marks the spot where the Moon is furthest from the Sun. Other Full Moon may occur at about 172 - 178 and 182 to 188 degrees latitude from the Sun, and will not cause an Eclipse.
The Lunar Eclipses according to the Elecromagnetic Accelerator predicts that over the course of a Lunar Month, the Full Moon will be the South-Most position of the Moon. This may be confirmed in applications such as Stellarium.
Scale Experiment Notes
"A body's weight or mass doesn't change in the presence of air or not. The problem is that scales actually don't measure weight (or mass). What they measures is the difference between the body's weight and its upward Archimedes' push made by air on it."
Wikipedia Altitude: All other things being equal, an increase in altitude from sea level to 9,000 metres (30,000 ft) causes a weight decrease of about 0.29%.
Wikipedia Latitude: "In combination, the equatorial bulge and the effects of the surface centrifugal force due to rotation mean that sea-level gravity increases from about 9.780 m/s2 at the Equator to about 9.832 m/s2 at the poles, so an object will weigh approximately 0.5% more at the poles than at the Equator"
"The only thing that matters is that you calibrate it in the same environment and on the same place on your bench as when you are using it. Don't cal the scale at 40* and then use it when it's 80*. Let everything stablize and calibrate; you'll be just fine. It doesn't hurt to double check things after every 100 rounds. Also, anytime I get interupted or have to take a break, I will re-check the cal on the scale."
Deception of the Douglas Bag Validation Method - What is the Gold Standard of Incompetence?
"Would you take a medication knowing that a pharmacy used an uncalibrated scale to weigh its ingredients? Would you board a plane knowing that the fuel or altitude gauges are not calibrated at frequent intervals?
In these and thousands of other applications scientific bases and rules of metrology must be obeyed to assure chaos-free operation of modern societies. To scrutinize performance of measuring devices a process of calibration must be carried out by means of applying a known standard and getting back a correct reading."
Things that affect scales:
"Pharmaceutical laboratories and bioscience research institutes make extensive use of analytical balances that are highly sensitive. These analytical balances are greatly affected by their environment and also by the way they are installed and handled."
Uncalibrated bathroom scales inaccurate - https://thewirecutter.com/blog/can-i-trust-my-bathroom-scale/
A scale that measures the weight of the atmosphere is called the "barometer".
Air pressure does not affect the scale trivially. See the following illustration and text:
“ Air pressure decreases as altitude increases.
Atmospheric pressure — or barometric pressure — is simply the weight of the air at ground level. It’s a little easier to understand when you think about the concept of water pressure first. As you get deeper in water, the pressure increases. This is because as you descend, the built up weight of the water on top of you increases. In 1 foot of water, you have the weight of that foot of water pressing down on you. In 2 feet of water, you have the weight of an extra foot of water pressing on you. It’s quite logical, really. ”
- NOAA Solar Calculator
- Celestial Mechanics Cannot Predict The Solar System
- Problems of the Solar System
Topics Related to Relativity
- Gravimetry -- fix misc
Flat Earth Star Trails
To review - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RkDqdoINhYI
Project Longstop - Consider simplifying with references
Samuel Birley Rowbotham
The American Association for the Advancement of Science lists him as Dr. Samuel Rowbotham in his 1885 obit, as does the obit in Eng. Mechanic and World of Science. The Bookseller obituary confirms he was a practicing doctor of medicine as a "legitimate profession with great success.
Rowbotham's work is cited in medical journals.
Papers showing that missiles were designed to assume a Flat Earth:
Internal Guidance of Ballistic Missiles (1971)
“ The second possible misconception relates to the notion that gravitational redshift experiments provide evidence for spacetime curvature. They do, but contrary to what is claimed in a couple of important modern textbooks on GR, a single gravitational redshift experiment does not require an explanation in terms of curvature. Rather, it is only multiple such experiments, performed at appropriately different locations in spacetime, that suggest curvature, via the notion that inertial frames are only defined locally. In the process of elaborating on this in section (3), we also take a swipe at the nomenclature associated with the “clock hypothesis”. ”
Rescheduled flights: http://ifers.123.st/t69p25-flight-routes-shipping-routes-under-sea-cables
Flat Earth - Flights from Sydney to Houston fly NORTH of Hawaii - Earth Not a Globe
“ Jet streams are ever-present, relatively narrow, streams of high-speed winds undulating around the Northern and Southern Hemispheres ”
“ Within these streams, winds travel at different rates of speed, from some 50 miles per hour at the outer edges of the stream, to some 250 miles per hour at the center. Speeds as high as 300 miles an hour have been reported. ”
Jet Streams Enable Faster Than Sound Flight
“ OK, about that "subsonic" bit. You might know that the speed of sound at an altitude of 30,000 to 40,000 feet is roughly 670 mph. But Norwegian’s planes didn't break the sound barrier. Those near-800-mph figures represent ground speed—how fast the aircraft is moving over land. Their air speed, which factors out the 200-mph wind boost, was closer to the 787's standard Mach 0.85. (The older Boeing 747 can cruise at Mach 0.86, but is less efficient than its younger stablemate.) When talking supersonic, and breaking sound barriers, it's all about the speed of the air passing over the wings, which in this case was more like 570 mph. ”
Jeran Video - Jet Streams SH
Trade Winds and South Pacific Gyre
South Pacific Gyre
Another illustration: https://books.google.com/books?id=bOg0EqqrDRgC&lpg=PA133&dq=%22jet%20streams%22%20%22southern%20hemisphere%22&pg=PA153#v=onepage&q=%22jet%20streams%22%20%22southern%20hemisphere%22&f=false
GPC and Lat-Lon distances
The coordinate system a GPS uses assumes that the coordinate points rest upon a sphere. The location of one coordinate point may be "accurate", but the distance between multiple coordinate points relies upon the Round Earth model, as Latitude and Longitude is a spherical coordinate system, and is therefore in dispute in these conversations.
Flights over the Southern Oceans
“ The Southern Ocean is notorious for having some of the strongest winds and largest waves on the planet. ”
“ There are huge belts of wind caused by the uneven way the Sun heats the Earth's surface. 30° north and south of the equator, the trade winds blow steadily. At 40° lie the prevailing westerlies, and the polar easterlies begin at around 60°.
Ask any round-the-world sailor and they will quickly tell you the stormiest seas, stirred by the strongest winds, are found in the Southern Ocean. These infamously rough latitudes are labelled the "roaring 40s", "furious 50s" and "screaming 60s". ”
“ The Southern Ocean is a vital element in the global climate. Its circumpolar current plays a crucial role in the global transport of mass, heat, momentum, and climate signals from one ocean basin to another. Moreover, the Southern Ocean hosts the strongest surface winds of any open ocean area, fostering strong heat, moisture, and momentum exchanges between the ocean and atmosphere. However, the Southern Ocean is tremendously undersurveyed by traditional observation methods because of the remoteness of the area and rough environment, causing the largest data gap of global oceans. ”
Listed Flight Times Skewed
“ Surprisingly, flight time is calculated from when the aircraft releases the parking brake (on push back) to when it sets the brake on arrival to the gate,” commercial pilot Chris Cooke told Travel + Leisure. “All that waiting in line during taxi and takeoff counts toward flight time.
Not surprisingly, saving money is another reason flights take longer today. “Airlines are able to save millions per year by flying slower," reveals a video from Business Insider. ”
A study which says they are skewing flight times:
“ Are you being told the truth about flight times?
Passenger jets have never been more advanced. With Boeing’s 787 Dreamliner, introduced in 2011, leading the charge, and new models like the 737 MAX and the Airbus A320neo following in its wake, the aircraft on which we travel are safer, smoother, quieter and more fuel efficient than ever.
They also appear perfectly capable of flying faster than their predecessors. Just last month the low-cost carrier Norwegian issued a celebratory press release after one of its 787 Dreamliners whizzed from John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York to London Gatwick in five hours and 13 minutes, setting a new transatlantic record for a subsonic plane. That’s three minutes quicker than the previous best time set by British Airways in January 2015.
So why, record-breaking feats notwithstanding, are airlines claiming it takes longer and longer to fly from A to B?
That’s according to research by OAG, the aviation analyst, carried out for Telegraph Travel. It found that over the last couple of decades, despite new technology, scheduled flight times - ie. how long an airline estimates it will take to complete a journey - have actually increased by as much as 50 per cent.
Looking at Europe’s busiest international route, for example - Heathrow to Dublin - it found that in 1996 the vast majority of airlines published a scheduled flight time of between 60 and 74 minutes. Fast forward 22 years and almost all claim the journey takes between 75 and 89 minutes, while a handful bank on 90 minutes or more. ”
“ In the meantime, here are a few of the main differences between WGS 84 and NAD83:
-The coordinate system for WGS 84 is geographic, and the NAD83 system is projected.
-WGS 84 values are points in space, while NAD83 coordinates are physical locations on the Earth. ”
Background to NAD83
Truth Tokens -Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) conformal projection
I think my question is for people who are living in WA, or someone know much about US coordinate systems:
What is World Geodetic System of 1984 and how's difference between it and NAD83 Washtington state planes?
Re: Coordinates System WGS-84 is a coordinate system designed for world-wide navigation. It takes into account the spherical nature of the planet. The coordinates are given in deg-min-sec format, common with polar coordinates, for latitude and longitude.
The Washington state plane system is a square coordinate system specific for the state of Washington. It supposes a flat plane across the face of the state. Northing and Easting are given in feet, based on straight line-of-sight distance.
Transformations Between NAD83 and WGS84
“ To solve the paradox of the Michelson-Morley experiment we have to abandon Newton's axioms of absolute space and absolute time. Einstein solved the problem by making the ingenious assumption that observers moving with different velocities with respect to each other have their own space and time. The second postulate of the theory of relativity is that light propagates in every direction with the same constant velocity, in every legitimate (uniformly moving) reference system. It is actually the theoretical formulation of the negative result of Michelson and Morley's experiment. The theory performed the unification of space and time.
However, the Newtonian action-at-a-distance still awaited explanation. This was accomplished again by Einstein with his general theory of relativity. By speculative reasoning exclusively, Einstein concluded that a uniformly accelerated reference system imitates completely the behavior of a uniform gravitational field. All masses fall in a field of gravity with exactly the same acceleration. i.e., the ponderable (gravitational) mass of a body is strictly proportional to its inertial mass. This is the so-called "equivalence hypothesis" confirmed by Roland Eötvös. The principle has important consequences. First, the force of gravity comes into existence solely through the (accelerated) motion of the reference system, like centrifugal force, for example. The second consequence is that the principle is universal: is holds for all physical phenomena. In an accelerated box an observer will see a beam of light following a curved path; consequently an equivalent gravitational field must also bend the path of a light beam. The velocity of light is no longer an absolute constant of nature. ”
American Association for the Advancement of Science is publishing content which states that SR has been disproved through its EurekaAlert website:
“ The special theory of relativity has been disproved theoretically
At present, mainstream physicists seem to have fully accepted Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity (STR) and to take it as the foundation of modern physics because the theory appears perfectly logical and its predictions seem to be supported by numerous experiments and observations. However, if one re-examines these experiments carefully and with an open mind, serious problems may emerge. The paper has examined many experiments that are considered as the evidences of relativistic effects, but found they either have null effects or are wrongly interpreted or calculated. For example, the behaviours of clocks in Hefele-Keating experiment interpreted as the results of relativistic time dilation caused by the relative speed of an inertial reference frame are actually absolute and do not change with the change of inertial reference frames; the corrected calculation of Fizeau experiment based on Newton's velocity addition formula is much closer to the experimental measurement than the result calculated based on the relativistic velocity addition formula. In fact, Hefele-Keating experiment indicates the existence of a medium in the space that can slow down the frequencies of atomic clocks when they have velocities relative to the medium, and Fizeau experiment reveals the existence of a medium called aether relative to which the speed of light is constant, though it is possible that the medium to slow down atomic clocks may be different from aether as multiple media may coexist in the space.
The existence of aether means that the two postulates of STR are wrong for light and electromagnetic waves because the speed of light and the electromagnetic wave equations should be valid only in the inertial reference frame moving with the local aether, just like the acoustic wave equation valid only in the inertial reference frame moving with the local air.
The paper has cleared the definition of the physical time and proved that the time of a physical clock is an invariant of Lorentz Transformation i.e. an invariant of inertial reference frames same as Galilean time. The Lorentz invariance of the clock time makes it possible to synchronize clocks in all inertial reference frames to produce the absolute and universal physical time as demonstrated in the universal synchronization of all the satellite clocks and ground clocks of the global positioning system. Therefore, the time of the STR is no longer the physical time measured with physical clocks.
Moreover, the paper has further proved that Lorentz Transformation is the same as to redefine time and space as functions of Galilean time and space to produce an artificially constant speed of light in all inertial reference frames. The relationship between the STR space-time and Galilean space-time has revealed that the time dilation and length contraction of the STR in a moving inertial reference frame observed on the stationary inertial reference frame are just illusions. Using the relationship can also prove that the real speed of light measured with clocks still follows Newton's velocity addition formula, which directly falsifies the postulate that the speed of light is constant in all inertial reference frames.
All these findings lead us to conclude that the STR as a theory of physics is wrong. Thus, all relativistic spacetime model based physics theories (electromagnetic theory, quantum field theory, general theory of relativity, big bang theory, string theories, etc) become questionable. Disproving the STR and other related theories of physics will not lead to any crisis but instead open a new room for scientists to develop new theories for all the known and unknown physical phenomena. The paper has proposed a new experimental setup with which scientists will be able to measure the velocity of aether wind anywhere in the reachable universe and determine the velocity field of aether in the space for studying the dynamics of aether. The dynamics of aether may lead to the discovery of new methods to propel our space ships to speeds close to or even faster than the speed of light as the speed limit imposed by the STR is no longer valid, though there should exist an extremely difficult barrier for us to surpass the speed of light in the aether just as to surpass the sound barrier in the air. ”
“ It is believed that the Sagnac effect does not contradict Special Relativity theory because it is manifest in non-inertial rotational motion; therefore, it should be treated in the framework of General Relativity theory. However, several well-designed studies have convincingly shown that a Sagnac Effect identical to the one manifest in rotational uniform motion is also manifest in transverse uniform motion. This result should have been sufficient to falsify Special Relativity theory. In the present article, we offer theoretical support to the experimental results by elucidating the notion that the dynamics of transverse and rotational types of motion are completely equivalent. Since the transverse Sagnac effect contradicts Special Relativity theory, it follows that the rotational Sagnac effect contradicts Special Relativity theory as well. ”
Relativity and Accelerating Upwards:
“ Consider a skydiver jumping out of an airplane. The skydiver falls freely, up to the effects of air resistance. According to Einstein, the skydiver's path is the straightest line possible through the curved space-time around the Earth. From the skydiver's perspective this seems quite natural. Except for the air rushing past her, the skydiver feels no perturbing forces at all. In fact, if it weren't for the air resistance, she would experience weightlessness in the same way that an astronaut does in orbit. The only reason we think the skydiver is accelerating is because we are used to using the surface of the Earth as our frame of reference. If we free ourselves from this convention, then we have no reason to think the skydiver is accelerating at all.
Now consider yourself on the ground, looking up at the falling daredevil. Normally, your intuitive description of your own motion would be that you are stationary. But again this is only because of our slavish regard to the Earth as the arbiter of what is at rest and what is moving. Free yourself from this prison, and you realize that you are, in fact, accelerating. You feel a force on the soles of your feet that pushes you upwards, in the same way that you would if you were in a lift that accelerated upwards very quickly. In Einstein's picture there is no difference between your experience sanding on Earth and your experience in the lift. In both situations you are accelerating upwards. In the latter situation it is the lift that is responsible for your acceleration. In the former, it is the fact that the Earth is solid that pushes you upwards through space-time, knocking you off your free-fall trajectory. That the surface of the Earth can accelerate upwards at every point on its surface, and remain as a solid object, is because it exists in a curved space-time and not in a flat space.
With this change in perspective the true nature of gravity becomes apparent. The free falling skydiver is brought to Earth because the space-time through which she falls is curved. It is not an external force that tugs her downwards, but her own natural motion through a curved space. On the other hand, as a person standing on the ground, the pressure you feel on the soles of your feet is due to the rigidity of the Earth pushing you upwards. Again, there is no external force pulling you to Earth. It is only the electrostatic forces in the rocks below your feet that keep the ground rigid, and that prevents you from taking what would be your natural motion (which would also be free fall).
So, if we free ourselves from defining our motion with respect to the surface of the Earth we realize that the skydiver is not accelerating, while the person who stands on the surface of the Earth is accelerating. Just the opposite of what we usually thing. Going back to Galileo's experiment on the leaning tower of Pisa, we can now see why he observed all of his cannonballs to fall at the same rate. It wasn't really the cannonballs that were accelerating away from Galileo at all, it was Galileo that was accelerating away from the cannonballs! ”
“ A recent ingenious test by Wang et al. (2003) shows that the Sagnac result is also achieved by sending out and back again light in a straight-line portion of the light path. This is what this author claimed above, but it is so much more convincing when an actual experiment has shown the same thing. I wonder what excuse will be trotted out now! Wang et all. achieved the seemingly impossible by reversing a light beam sent out on a straight line on a moving platform and measuring the difference in time for it to return. This author had the pleasure of meeting Wang in 1997 and corresponded with him during the rests he performed and since then.
In another paper (2005), Wang gives further details of the experiment; appended to this paper are comments on the experiment by Hatch and Van Flandern, confirming that Wang had succeeded in proving that the Sagnac effect applies to straight-line motion.
...Any claims that the Sagnac experiment upsets [Special Relativity] were heretofore brushed aside by a statement that Sagnac is a rotational experiment and that SR does not apply to rotational experiments. That defense is now shown to be groundless. ”
From Unified Field Mechanics II by Richard L. Amoroso, Louis H. Kauffman, Peter Rowlands, and Gianni Albertini we see:
“ This controversy, whether Sagnac experiment is against or in accordance with relativity, was settled recently by R. Wang et a.  with a very interesting experimental setup they called linear Sagac interferometer.
...From the experimental regults obtained with the linear Sagnac interferometer one is lead to conclude that in this particular case the linear additive rule applies. Consequently we may have velocities greater than c, which clearly shows that realitivity is not adequate do describe this specific physical process. ”
Reasons SR is wrong: http://www.harkess.org.uk/reasons_einstein_wrong/reasons_einstein_wrong.html
“ THE U.MASS. SUNWHEEL is an 8 year old stone circle -- a solar and lunar calendar and observatory located on the campus of the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. The stone circle contains 14 stones 8'-10' tall, marking the cardinal directions, the directions along the horizon to the rising and setting Sun at the solstices and equinoxes, and the directions to the rising and setting Moon at major lunar standstill. ”
From Cornell University for the Northern Hemisphere:
|Season||Postion of Moonrise/set|
The direction of Moonrise changes quite drastically over 14 days, moving over quite extreme ranges South to North.
From University of Arizona:
Right Angle Triangle
Angle A: 5.01
Adjacent Side: 238900
Angle B: 90
Opposite Side: 21,321.257
Angular Diameter Calculator
Take the above value of 21321.257 and 238900 and put it into an angular diameter calculator. This will tell us the number of degrees in the sky the space of 21321.257 miles will make if it were at the distance to the Round Earth moon.
g = 21321.257
r = 238900
a = 5.11 degrees
The above suggests that the moon must travel a path that is within 5.11 degrees from the ecliptic at all times.
Shift of the Ecliptic
To calculate the maximum amount the ecliptic of the sun can shift in the sky to perspective depending on where you stand on earth above (or below) the plane of the ecliptic which bisects the earth, we may do the following:
Opposite Side: 3,963 (radius of the earth in miles)
Angle A: 90 Degrees
Adjacent Side: 238,900 (distance to the moon in miles)
Angle B: 0.95 Degrees
Measuring the Sky
Timeanddate.com has provided a handy guide to measuring the sky. When holding one's hand at arms length 5 degrees will take up about three fingers of space.
Quote: "The most visible point I've seen is that the seasonal star constellations you know well (Orion in my case) will be seen as inverted if you change the hemisphere. The moon and sun position also change greatly. I'm not aware of any ideas that incorporate this."
Prof. Alan Myers - http://www.upenn.edu/emeritus/essays/MyersMoon.html
moon phases illustration p.19 - https://starlab.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/D.-25.-Moon-Cylinder-v616.pdf
Clouds Lit from Below
Alt Explanation: https://epod.usra.edu/blog/2017/02/clouds-lit-from-below.html
"Have you ever directly experienced anything in your entire life that would lead you to believe you were living on a sphere hurtling through space? If you hadn't been repeatedly told it was true, would you ever suspect that it was?
There's your proof: your own eyes."
P. Kelly, LL. D. in his Metrology; Or, an Exposition of Weights and Measures (1816) comments on p.10:
“ Some philosophers have doubted the perfect equability of the earth's diurnal rotation on its axis; but from the best observations that have been made for 2000 years, in fixed observatories, it is concluded that there is no variation whatever. It is perhaps the only uniform motion of which astronomers are certain. And here it may be worthy of remark, that no natural cause has yet been assigned for the diurnal rotation of the planets. Sir Issac Newton observes, in one of his letters to Dr. Bently, (reviewed in Dr. Johnson's Works, Vol. II. p.332, Murphy's edition) that "the diurnal rotations of the planets cannot be derived from gravity, but must require a divine arm to impress them."
The above question respecting the natural cause of plentary rotation was submitted to the principle Astronomers of France in the summer of 1814, at a Metting of the Board of Longitude. It was introduced by a visitor from England, who wished to learn if any new light had been thrown on the subject, by the great advances made in analytical science and physical astronomy, by some of the members present. They all agreed that no satisfactory solution had yet been given of the phenomenon; and they listened with much attention to the opinion quoted from Sir Issac Newton's Letters, which they had not previously known, and on which the Count Laplace modestly observed -- "Si Netwon n'a pas pu l'exfliquer ce n'est pas a nous d'y pretendre." [Translated: If Netwon could not explain it, it is not up to us to claim it.] ”
“ In a picture of the earth as these unique theorists believe it to be--of some of them, for they do not all agree that the "South Pole" is seen as a wall of ice surrounding the circular earth. This conception certainly fits well with the idea of the vastness of the Southern wastes of ice which have turned back all explorers.
The hardy searchers for glory have come much nearer to the North Pole, and have made the region around it seem small and familiar compared to that at the South, which is the true "terra incognita." In the flat earth picture, the North polar region is seen to be be a small region of eternal cold in the centre of the circular world.
Alexander Gleason, the sage of Niagara street, Buffalo, gave long and hard study to this great problem of the earth's surface, and spent much time publishing books and collecting information. At one time he advertised in a New York paper for sea captains who had made the trip from the West African coast around the Cap Horn, his desire being to prove that the distance was much greater than it would be if the earth were a sphere. The information which he obtained seemed to be satisfactory to himself, though it did not convince many scientists and geographers. ”
Questions and Answers
Q: Does this model of the phases predict anything that RET does not?
A: According to the above rule-of-thumb table from Cornell University during the phases between New Moon and 1st Quarter (Half Moon) the Moon will not set in the sky until a time between Sunset (New) and Local Midnight (1st Quarter), meaning that the range of Crescent Moon phases will be seen during the night. In the Flat Earth Moon Phase diagrams above we can see how this can be possible -- of the nine phase examples arranged in a circle, it takes about two 'sections' for the celestial bodies to set from an overhead position. The Crescent Moon will overlap into the night time.
However, according to the geometric model of the phases in RET, a Crescent Moon appearing in the sky into late hours of the night is difficult to explain with the Round Earth model.
John Savage at Savage Plane explains the matter in an article and a video here:
The authors of the article even identify some dates in 2019 for when the Crescent Moon is seen past midnight for locations in the Northern Hemisphere -- which may be possible in the above Flat Earth model since locations in the Northern Hemisphere are closer to the center, but hard to explain with the Round Earth schema where those locations are geometrically pointing away from the daylight side. A gibbous moon seen during the day is another issue, essentially the reverse of the above, and is also discussed.
Flattened at the Poles
Of interest, when reviewing the history of weight changes by latitude we find that the nature of the Earth was changed because the theory did not meet the result. This is the origin of the flattening of the poles.
From Voltaire we see:
“ The celebrated Huygens, by calculating centrifugal forces, had proved that the consequent diminution of weight on the surface of a sphere was not great enough to explain the phenomenon, and that therefore the earth must be a spheroid flattened at the poles. ”
From Encyclopedia Brittanica's article on Jean Richer:
“ Richer’s observations also led to a discovery about Earth’s shape. Through experimentation, Richer discovered that the beat of a pendulum is slower at Cayenne than at Paris, which is at a different latitude. This meant that gravity must be weaker at Cayenne than at Paris. Sir Isaac Newton and Dutch mathematician Christiaan Huygens used this discovery to prove that the Earth is not a sphere but is actually flattened at the poles (an oblate spheroid). Thus, Cayenne is farther than Paris from Earth’s centre. ”
Time Dilation by Latitude
“ John Rennie – who is going to jump above me at Physics Stack Exchange in a few months unless I will find motivation to prevent him from doing so – has asked a very nice question:
"The Earth is spinning so all people living at the equator are apparently moving at 464 m/s relatively to what seems like a "better inertial frame". By the special relativistic time dilation, this should slow their time by one part per trillion. That would be a 100 larger relative effect than the accuracy you may achieve with state-of-the-art atomic clocks. Has someone measured this effect that should be measurable?"
The answer is actually funny (especially if you say more than just the word "No"). Let me just repost mine.
The difference would indeed be measurable with state-of-the-art atomic clocks but it's not there: it cancels. The reasons actually boil down to the very first thought experiments that Einstein went through when he realized the importance of the equivalence principle for general relativity
Every argument showing the exact cancellation of the special relativistic effect must use the equivalence principle at one point or another; any argument avoiding this principle – or anything else from general relativity – is guaranteed to be incorrect because separately (without gravity and its effects), the special relativistic effect is certainly there. ”
Q: Can an amateur astronomer test the Lunar Laser Ranging RetroReflector?
A: I was a grad student on the APOLLO (Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser Ranging Operation) project that was shown on Mythbusters. The short answer is no way. You need laser that can shoot enough photons in a short pulse that you'll get some back in the return pulse (shoot 1017 green 532 nm photons per pulse). You need sensitive detectors because, even if you shoot 1017 photons up, you're only going to get about 1 photon back (we used avalanche photodiodes). You need fancy filters and timing electronics, because, when you are only getting 1 photon back, you need to turn the detectors on in as little a time as possible to minimize false detections from background light. You need a big telescope to maximize the number of photons you get (we used the 3.5 meter telescope at Apache Point). And you need to set this all up in a place with minimal background light and minimal atmospheric distortion (seeing). http://physics.ucsd.edu/~tmurphy/apollo/apparatus.html I guess you could do all these things on your own, but you would need about $1 million and a couple years of time to set it up.
Other experiments to review, comments section of https://www.thedailybell.com/all-articles/news-analysis/flat-earthers-are-the-most-dedicated-trolls-ever/
Gravity by Altitude
The following author says that, although he believes that gravity decreases with altitude, that the experiments in the literature do not take factors related to the atmosphere into account and calls for better experiments.
Unchecked Aspects of Variation of Acceleration due to Gravity with Altitude
“ It is correctly established that g decreases with altitude, but the variation of g with atmospheric of g with atmospheric pressure (decreases with altitude) is not considered in precise experiments in the existing literature. Torricelli determined in pioneering experiments that height of mercury column in barometer as 0.76m due to atmospheric pressure in 1644. Newton formulated g in 1685, and then Pascal’s Law was treated in presence of gravity for imaginary cylinder of liquid. Thus equation P=DgH is obtained which relates acceleration due to gravity, g with atmospheric pressure, P. The expression for variation in g with altitude as gh = g/(1+h/R)2, by both methods will be compared. At sea level the heights of liquid columns (for water 10.33m , for glycerine 8.202m , ethyl alcohol 13.16m ) are independent of other factors such as diameters of tubes, viscosity, surface tension of liquid, angle of contact and capillarity etc. At height of 2 km above the surface of the earth the heights of liquid columns are reduced e.g. for mercury 0.5967m, for water 8.1158m and for glycerine 6.4411 m. Now measuring P, H and g can be calculated. The value of g can be determined by both methods at various heights and should be same. Theoretically when atmospheric pressure becomes zero then value of gH (P/DH) must tend to zero; according to gh = g/(1+h/R)2, gh becomes zero at infinite large distances. But no such attempts have been reported in literature, hence it is open problem especially when tubes of various diameters are considered and characteristics of liquids are different. Due to diverse experimental conditions of liquids and equipments, mercury may be regarded as ideal liquid for such measurements of pressure. The value of g due to altitude decreases steadily, whereas due to atmospheric pressure g decreases abruptly. So sensitive experiments are absolutely necessary to draw concrete conclusions. ”
“ There is no factor which takes in account the diameter of the tube in which height of liquid column is measured. Theoretically, the height of liquid column must be same for capillary tube (closed upper end ) and tube of diameter two feet. However the phenomena of rise or fall of liquids is observed in capillary, whereas upper end is open. This aspect is not taken in account ”
“ At height of 50km the total air is only 1% implying considerable decrease in pressure as atmospheric pressure decreases. At height of 50 km, atmospheric pressure is 75.944 Pa and the same at height of 25 km is 2511.02 Pa. Thus accordingly g will decrease ”
Lunar Laser Ranging
“ The Lunar Laser Ranging experiment  has also veri ed that the Moon and the Earth fall with the same acceleration toward the Sun to better than one part in 1012 ”
Or, in other words, a null result.
After 40 years' reflection, laser moon mirror project is axed
“ The National Science Foundation (NSF) last week wrote to scientists working at the McDonald Laser ranging station at Fort Davis in Texas to tell them the annual $125,000 funding for their research project was going be terminated following a review of its scientific merits. ”
Used by NASA as evidence for Apollo:
“ The mirror's existence, and the fact that astronomers can bounce lasers off it and detect the returning beam, has also provided Nasa and other scientists with compelling evidence to refute the claims of moon-landing deniers who claim the Apollo lunar mission were hoaxes filmed in an Earth-based studio. ”
Two new LLR stations were developed to compete with MLRS: CERGA LLR at Grasse in Southern France and a NASA funded site on Mt. Haleakala operated by the University of Hawaii.
"Lunar laser ranging is one of the most important tools we have for searching for flaws in Einstein's general theory of relativity," says Slava Turyshev, a research scientist at JPL who works with Jim Williams and others on the project.
All of the phases were influenced by NASA. NASA is the customer and can easily say "we want the software to be developed by our external team" or "we want so and so to head this program".
When the government funds projects they don't just say "here's several million dollars, go wild", they go into it with clear rules and structure.
Some of the people on this project even freely identify themselves as working for NASA. From the press releases on the APOLLO website (second one down in the list of press releases):
Jim Williams is also a JPL employee --
"Jim Williams, a physicist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)"
According to this press release, James Williams, the aforementioned JPL eployee, is directing the research ---
Finding out what's inside the Moon isn't simple, said Dr. James G. Williams, who directs the research.
Seems that NASA is not only providing the software, they're directing the research as well.
The lunar ranging equipment at the Apache Point Observatory seen in the show is supported and funded by NASA --
"Finally, we thank NASA for supporting APOLLO and enabling it to get "off the ground", and more recently, a joint effort by NASA and the National Science Foundation to fund APOLLO at a level that will allow project completion and production of the first science results."
NASA could have easily built or modified the equipment or software to show the results they wanted, which is what a fake space agency would do to "prove" themselves. You're asking us to trust NASA that NASA is honest.
- The project is funded by NASA - The project is controlled by NASA, by virtue of being funded by them - NASA scientists are working on the project - The software for the project is admitted to come from NASA
“ The satellite argument goes both ways, as desired at a given moment: I’ve heard: “don’t you see them moving across the night sky?” so. I’m supposed to see a washing machine in LEO but also “how would you be able to see washing machine at that distance?” Not very convincing, especially against the resolving power of modern cameras…… and your number is referring to active objects, which has no impact on visibility…..there are supposedly 20,000 objects out there which can move across your line of sight, a staggering number which makes the total invisibility of such objects an even greater mystery... ”